Scenarios

 

Thirteen operating scenarios are defined. Each operational scenario is linked to one of the five defined use cases. These scenarios outline the capabilities of the ASSC. Their description is in narrative form for the sake of clarity. Table below lists the different scenarios, the corresponding version of ASSC and their relationship to the AMANDA use cases.

 

Label

Name

Version

Relation to Use Cases

SC01

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

Indoor

UC1

SC02

Automated lighting control

Indoor

SC03

Detection of dangerous gases and alerting   

Indoor

SC04

Fire detection

Indoor

SC05

Continuous occupancy monitoring in an indoor parking lot

Indoor

UC2

SC06

Continuous occupancy monitoring in an outdoor parking lot

Outdoor

SC07

City air quality and weather monitoring station

Outdoor

UC3

SC08

Continuous monitoring of vibrations affecting structures

Outdoor

SC09

Access control

Wearable

UC4

SC10

Personalised thermal comfort monitor 

Wearable

SC11

Employee positioning

Wearable

SC12

Monitoring environmental and vibration conditions in cargo area

Outdoor

UC5

 

SC13

Products tracking in warehouses 

Indoor

SC14

Patient tracking in hospitals

Indoor/Outdoor/Wearable

UC6
SC15 

Equipment tracking in hospitals

Indoor/Outdoor/Wearable
SC16 

Sensing of transportation conditions

Indoor/Outdoor/Wearable
SC17 

Crowd counting: object recognition in indoor areas

Indoor/Outdoor/Wearable
SC18 

Patient monitoring: CO2 concentration 

Indoor/Outdoor/Wearable
SC19 

Contact tracing

Indoor/Outdoor/Wearable

 

SC01 - Heating, ventilation and air conditioning

The employees and their employer want to automatically control the air conditioning of their workplace. Upon arrival, an employee places the ASSC on the desk or mounts it on the wall. The ASSC collects and measures environmental data, such as temperature and humidity, to the required accuracy. The ASSC uses data fusion and edge intelligence algorithms to calculate the appropriate actions, such as to adjust the environmental conditions to the desirable levels. On his/her mobile phone, the worker has an application that is directly connected to the ASSC. The smartphone app is configured to notify the employee of any unexpected changes. Data and deviations from target values are represented graphically in the smartphone application. At the same time, the fused data can be transmitted wirelessly via LoRa to a central monitoring system.

 

 

Principles of environmental room sensing

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SC02 - Automated lighting control

A company has offices and flexible working hours, allowing employees to start working at a shift of their choice. However, they often stay longer than expected and the natural lighting level decreases as the sun sets. This results in a rapid change of the lighting conditions in the office and countermeasures have to been applied. The employee puts the ASSC on his/her desk in order to control effortlessly the lighting levels according to predetermined or user-defined settings. The ASSC’s light sensor tracks the intensity of the ambient light and calculates the optimum light level based on machine learning algorithms that take into account historical data. Key data is subsequently transmitted to the lighting control system by either short- or long-range wireless communication. Based on the room lighting conditions, the brightness is then adjusted automatically by the control system.

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SC03 - Detection of dangerous gases and alerting

An employee works in an office environment that may be affected by a high concentration of toxic gases, due to the lack of proper ventilation. The worker or his/her employer decides to place an ASSC device inside the office to receive a prompt alert toxic gases are present. This will help to evacuate quickly the contaminated area. The ASSC continuously monitors target gases in a given area. The captured data is processed in real time and is subsequently transmitted to a central monitoring system. In the event of elevated toxic gases concentration, the warning LED is turned on the ASSC itself. Additionally, all collected data is sent to a central control system that can inform people to immediately evacuate the building and to respect any additional measures.

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SC04 - Fire detection

There are some indoor working places which have a high risk of catching fire. This may be due to the presence of combustible materials, damaged appliances or simply to human carelessness. Most of the houses and offices are equipped with smoke detectors (typically placed on the ceiling) which provide alerts in the event of fire. These sensor systems usually require  special mounting from a certified technician, at an extra cost. The person responsible for building’s maintenance and safety (or any authorized end-user) can use the AMANDA ASSC as a portable and easily retrofittable fire detector. The ASSC collects environmental data, such as temperature, CO2 levels and atmospheric pressure. Any rapid change in one of these levels (e.g. temperature or CO2 level surges) may be caused by the presence of a fire. The ASSC monitors in real-time all these factors, combines all the measurements into a few comprehensive single messages (safe, warning or unsafe, fire detected) by applying edge intelligence algorithms. Finally, in the event of fire, an LED will also blink on the ASSC card to provide visual cues. Simultaneously, the card transmits details about the incident to a central system, via BLE, or to the closest fire department, via LoRa.

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SC05 - Continuous occupancy monitoring in an indoor parking lot

When reaching the entrance of a car park, a car driver can observe the number of free parking spaces for each level of the car park on a dedicated display. In the ceiling above each free parking spot, there is a light indicator which informs the driver about the status of the parking slot. Green and red lighting stand for empty and occupied space respectively, while orange LED would indicate a space already allocated on the app (ie. not available). The ASSC is mounted on the ceiling, above each parking space and next to the light indicator. A magnetic and image sensor are used to detect a new vehicle. The ASSC is connected to the light indicator over BLE and transmits the parking slot status. Then, the light indicator on the ceiling changes its colour. Moreover, the “vehicle arrival” event is transmitted to a central monitoring and control system along with different environmental measurements such as CO2 levels, temperature and humidity. Both are connected via LoRa. The driver gets into his/her vehicle and leaves the car park. The ASSC detects such an event and sends the proper commands to the light indicator and to the control system. At regular intervals, the ASSC keeps sending information on CO2 levels, temperature, pressure and humidity to the central monitoring system. In the event of a sudden change in the CO2 level or high temperature, the ASSC will immediately send the information to the central monitoring system. The fire service will be alerted immediately.

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SC06 - Continuous occupancy monitoring in an outdoor parking lot

Many cities are facing heavy traffic congestion. Local authorities, in collaboration with public traffic companies, are trying to make car traffic more efficient, faster and environmentally friendly. Directing car users to all available parking space is one way to reduce congestion issues and to allocate individual parking spots faster. A pre-condition for smart city parking management is getting accurate identification information from free parking spots. Local authorities and parking providers will place the ASSC in each individual parking spot. The ASSCs detect the presence of vehicles using their embedded magnetic and image sensors. The data is transmitted to the central system via a long-range wireless communication. Informative displays around the city show the number of free parking spots in each car park. The ASSC can be mounted on poles on each parking slot or fixed on the ground. In the case of ground installation, the thickness of the card is an essential factor as the card should protrude as less as possible from the pavement.

 

 Outdoor parking slot. In each parking slot there is a fixed car detector

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SC07 - City air quality and weather monitoring station

In large, overcrowded cities with an increased number of cars, the local authorities should continuously monitor the air quality in order to control the pollution levels. For example it well-known that rush hours for traffic lead to a significant increase in air pollution. During the summer months, cities also face high temperatures in crowded areas such as underground stations. In cooperation with the Meteorological Services and Traffic Regulatory Services, local authorities can decide to place dozens of ASSCs at various locations. The miniature and lightweight features of the ASSC enables easy installation on buildings, bus stops, poles and any similar places where they should be discrete (i.e ideally unnoticed). The ASSC gathers information about various environmental and atmospheric conditions that are related to the air quality such as temperature, humidity, air pressure and CO2 levels. The data fusion process is followed by edge intelligent algorithms where an estimation of the air quality is computed. Wireless data is sent via LoRa to a central monitoring system for extensive analysis and historical recording. All collected information can be made available to the main public on the Meteorological Services website. By analysing and continuously monitoring the data, the responsible services are able to take all necessary measures to ensure the sufficient air quality is maintained in urban areas.

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SC08 - Continuous monitoring of vibrations affecting structures

Some historical and cultural monuments are critical to monitor. They can be a significant income source for the local economy, especially for highly touristic places. Local governments are aware that the increase of vehicle traffic in urban areas can cause significant damage to structures and compromise their stability due to the vibrations generated by vehicle movement. Aside from traffic, vibrations may come from the movement of large group of people (e.g. concerts near statues or other monuments). Additionally, some impressive sound systems installed nearby may produce a wide range of sound waves whose specific frequencies adversely resonate and directly affect the structural properties of the building. Bridges are a good example of structure sensitive to extreme vibration. The lifespan of a bridge is highly determined by its daily load of vehicles crossing. In order to overcome such critical issues, the local community in collaboration with the Archaeological Service and government, may decide to monitor the vibration on different structures. Measuring vibrations can be combined with traffic management (e.g. traffic diversion during rush hours) and can be used to ban or regulate gatherings near monuments. Several ASSC are set up in different positions on the monument and bridges. In collaboration with universities and civil engineers, data will be provided in order to correlate bridge’s damages with the monitored vibrations. An accelerometer measures small movements and data is collected and transmitted wirelessly to the monitoring system. Along with this, weather parameters are measured and can be correlated. Professional services can analyse the structural and environmental data provided by the ASSC on the individual parts of the monument (or bridge) and can take the required protection measures.

 

Monument in the city of Pula

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SC09 - Access control

In order to increase the safety within a company, an employer decides to install automatic doors in the various offices of the building, including the main entrance.  This helps to implement the proper regulation and registration processes. The employees receive permission to enter the building and any relevant offices (according to their pre-defined privileges) by using the ASSC as an access device. When an employee wishes to enter the building, they just touch the ASSC on a card reader. The NFC connection transmits the cardholder information to a central control system and the door either opens or denies access. The time of entry is recorded in the ASSC using the RTC. During the working shift, the employee can have access to  different offices. At the end of the working hours, the employee places the card again into an NFC reader. The central control system checks his identity and gives permission to exit. Exit time is also logged in the system’s database.

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SC10 - Personalised thermal comfort monitor

In large scale companies with many individual offices, it is expensive and insufficient to have an air conditioning system that is controlled manually. Companies may decide to provide their employees with personal ASSCs, indoor to both save money and satisfy their employees. Each ASSC comes with pre-defined thresholds regarding the acceptable temperature and humidity levels corresponding to its owner choice. While a worker moves to different places inside the building, the environmental conditions change according to his preferences. If a large number of people found in the same room the conditions will be adjusted to the people’s overall preferences. The ASSC will be connected to the air conditioning controller via short-range wireless communication.

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SC11 - Employee positioning

The miniaturized, non-intrusive card can be either carried by a worker or mounted in his/her work uniform. Captured data, including indoor and outdoor local location and acceleration, can be used to study the behaviour and the availability of people wearing the card. During a working shift, the employee can be identified and subsequently located within the building by using the long-range communication capabilities of the ASSC. In jobs in which the risk of an accident is high (e.g. miners), the accurate positioning of a worker is critical as it enhances the safety. By utilising the accelerometer along with machine-learning algorithms, the ASSC can detect if the person has fell and he is unconscious or injured. Moreover, such a wearable device can indicate in real-time the availability of its user to the rest of his colleagues and valuable working time could be saved. The employee can use the capacitive sensor to change its status. The ASSC transmits the proper information to a local terminal which projects the status of all employees.

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SC12 - Monitoring environmental and vibration conditions in cargo area

A logistics company wishes to know if the correct transportation conditions have been respected throughout delivery of a product. Having a fast and high quality delivery will benefit their existing customers and attract new ones. To this end, they decide to provide their customers with as much accurate information as possible about what happened during delivery. There is a wide range of applications within the supply chain. The ASSC could be placed in a simple delivery parcel in in large scale containers which contains a large number of products. At each food delivery parcel, the store owner places an ASSC in order to monitor the status of the delivery process. The ASSC also collect temperature and humidity data along with movements (fall detection using the accelerometer for example) and records delivery times. Edge intelligence algorithms are then used to estimate the food or goods condition. The ASSC could be connected wirelessly with a portable POS device via short-range communication. The delivery services hand over the goods to the customer and print a receipt that contains all the data collected by the ASSC. This includes main environmental conditions within the delivery parcel and exact delivery or transport time. A connection to the central system is also established with a terminal in order to store all collected information into the system’s database.

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SC13 - Products tracking in warehouses

A company wishes to track the location of products inside a warehouse. The organisation decides to use the AMANDA ASSC for this purpose. Depending on the way the products are stored within the warehouse, the ASSC is either placed on each product or in specific areas (e.g. on the shelves). The ASSC collects typical environmental factors such as temperature and humidity levels and sends them via BLE to a local terminal for data storage. Using a combination of LoRa and BLE protocol, the ASSC can locate the product within a factory or warehouse. Any authorised employee can find the product quickly for despatch or other purpose. If the ASSC is mounted on the shelves, this process can work vice versa, allowing the worker to locate the area where a product should be placed.

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